Financial Decision-Making

Watch this brief 6 minute video to learn about Dr. LIchtenberg's latest tool for professionals
(posted Sept. 2022)

One out of 20 older adults in the U.S. is a victim of financial exploitation, losing an average of $80,000 to $186,000. Nearly half of these crimes are committed by someone the older adult knows and trusts, like a relative or caregiver. Despite these dire statistics, no currently available tools directly assess an older adult's financial judgment and underlying decisional abilities, while protecting their independence. 

Peter Lichtenberg, Director, Institute of Gerontology and Professor of Psychology 

313-664-2633  Finally, a proven tools for combating the financial exploitation of older adults…that you can use now.
The Institute of Gerontology's "Older Adult Nest Egg" offers empowering tools for frontline professionals who need a simple and credible way to assess the financial decision-making capacity of older adults who may be, or may become, vulnerable to financial exploitation.

IOG Director Peter Lichtenberg's research has created assessments to identify older adults at risk of financial exploitation, scams and fraud, while preserving the rights of capable older adults to handle their own financial decisions. His screenings and evaluations include the Financial Vulnerability Assessment, a 35-item interview for mental health professionals, and the Financial Decision Tracker, a 10-item scale for financial services professionals, bank personnel, lawyers, law enforcement officers, and adult protective services employees. Visit his website, Older Adult Nest Egg, for details.

His research model assesses older adults' financial judgment, measures vulnerability to thefts and scams, provides training and dissemination of tools to professionals, and isolates physical or mental health issues that could expose an older adult to financial predators. Field testing of these assessments is being conducted across an array of socioeconomic and education levels.

Initial studies confirm the Lichtenberg Financial Decision-Making Screening and Rating Scales (© 2014) reliably profile an older adults' vulnerability to fraud and ability to manage money. The screening tool uncovers whether a person may be currently under undue influence, be psychologically susceptible to outside influence, or unable to make sound, rational financial decisions. The rating scale determines whether the older adult understood the financial decision and made it with integrity, not whether the decision was wise. "Older adults, like all adults, have the right to make poor financial choices," Dr. Lichtenberg said. "We need to assess whether the decision was authentic."

Dr. Lichtenberg's vulnerability assessment sprang from a population-based study of 4,440 participants in which he found that severe depression combined with low social-status fulfillment increased the probability of a person being victimized by fraud by 226%. 

His research has been funded by the National Institute of Justice, the Michigan Health Endowment Fund, the Retirement Research Foundation, Michigan Aging and Health Services PRVNT, and the American House Foundation. Dr. Lichtenberg has spoken before the National Academies of Science in Washington, DC, as an expert on capacity assessment instruments and the underlying abilities required to manage and direct finances and testified before a congressional briefing in Washington, DC, on fraud schemes that target seniors.

Dr. Lichtenberg's work also has a community engagement component called SAFE, Success After Financial Exploitation. To learn more about SAFE's free identify theft help and educational programs, follow these links:

Taking Control of Your Financial Health is a four-part series of engaging and interactive workshops to improve financial literacy for adults 50 and older.

Success After Financial Exploitation (SAFE) provides free one-on-one assistance to victims of scams or identity theft to help them recover their financial standing. SAFE can also provide expert presentations to interested groups on financial decision-making, vulnerability and protection from scams.

A Short Form of the Financial Exploitation Vulnerability Scale
Clinical Gerontologist, Oct 2020,
This tool serves a need in many professional settings (e.g., doctor's offices and Adult Protective Services) for a brief, standardized assessment measure of financial exploitation risk. This measure also provides actionable information for professionals to follow up with the standard of care for their clients.

Examining Health & Wealth Correlates of Perceived Financial Exploitation
Gerontological Society of America Innovation in Aging, 9-7-2020, doi:10.1093/geroni/igaa039
This study represents both a conceptual and empirical contribution to our understanding of older adult's perceptions of financial vulnerability. The high levels of Perceived Financial Vulnerability found in this normative sample underscore the importance of context in understanding people's economic behaviors.

Context Matters: Insecurity around Personal Finances & Financial Exploitation
The Gerontologist, March 25, 2020, doi:10.1093/geront/gnaa020
Contextual items in the areas of financial, psychological and financial insecurity, were different in adults who had been exploited versus those who were not exploited.  It is, therefore, important to measure these contexts when assessing financial decision-making and exploitation. A new Financial Exploitation Vulnerability Scale to measure these contextual items is introduced.

Providing Assistance for Older Adult Financial Exploitation Victims: Implications for Clinical Gerontologists
Clinical Gerontologist, Jan 29, 2019,
The Success After Financial Exploitation (SAFE) program provides financial education and individual financial coaching to older urban adults, many of them African American. SAFE participants were able to repair their credit scores, reduce new financial burdens, and even recover monies. Participants were assessed prior to services and performed poorer on executive functioning tasks than controls. They also reported more physical health problems, anxiety and depressive symptoms and scored significantly higher on risk in a financial decision-making scale. Clinicians need to be attuned to the financial health of their older clients who, if struggling with financial exploitation, may also suffer from problems with cognitive functioning and physical and mental health.

Assessment of Financial Decision-Making: An Informant Scale
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, Dec 20, 2018, DOI: 10.1080/08946566.2018.1556762
We examined the psychometric properties of a new informant-report scale (Family & Friends Interview or FFI) of financial decisional abilities in older adults. 150 participants completed the FFI about a known older adult's financial decisional abilities. A factor analysis identified two subscales. The full scale had adequate sensitivity and specificity to detect an informant's current concerns regarding financial exploitation. The FFI is a useful tool for collecting informant-reports regarding an older adult's ability to make financial transactions.

Effective Screening for Alzheimers Disease Among Older African Americans
The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 15:2, 196-202, DOI: 10.1076/clin.
The current study evaluated the clinical utility of the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) in detecting Alzheimers disease (AD) among both African American and European American older adults. One hundred and forty geriatric patients from a large urban academic medical center were examined. The results of this study support the use of the FOME among older African Americans to detect dementia.

Aging and Informed Financial Decision Making: New Tools for Professionals Working with Older Adults
Certified Senior Advisors Journal 71/Vol 2, 2018
Easy-to-administer, 10-item tool detects when persons may not be making informed financial decisions. The Lichtenberg Financial Decision Screening Scale (now called the Financial Decision Tracker) can be an important screening for financial professionals.

Cross-validation of the screening scale in an adult protective services sample
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, Nov 2018, DOI:10.1080/08946566.2018.1531098
Adult Protective Services (APS) professionals are often called on to assess decision-making capacity when investigating financial exploitation. Previous research found that in consecutive APS cases, a decision-making screening scale (LFDSS) also detected financial exploitation.This study applied the clinical cutoff scores derived from the previous study to a new sample of APS cases. Using a sample of 105 participants, from APS workers across 5 counties, this study investigated the clinical utility of the LFDSS to detect financial exploitation based on ratings by APS professionals using the scale. LFDSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency and clinical utility properties, supporting its use as a reliable and valid instrument. Instructions for use of the LFDSS are included in the article, along with information about online support tools.

Quantifying Risk of Financial Incapacity and Financial Exploitation in Community-dwelling Older Adults: Utility of a Scoring System for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision-making Rating Scale
Clinical Gerontologist, June 25, 2018
This work examines the clinical utility of the scoring system for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision-making Rating Scale (LFDRS, later iterated as the Financial Vulnerability Assessment) and its usefulness for decision making capacity and financial exploitation. Objective 1 was to examine the clinical utility of a person centered, empirically supported, financial decision making scale. Objective 2 was to determine whether the risk-scoring system created for this rating scale is sufficiently accurate for the use of cutoff scores in cases of decisional capacity and cases of suspected financial exploitation. Objective 3 was to examine whether cognitive decline and decisional impairment predicted suspected financial exploitation.

Conceptual and Empirical Approaches to Financial Decision-making by Older Adults: Results from a Financial Decision-making Rating Scale
Clinical Gerontologist, 41(1), Aug. 2017
This study: (1) empirically tested the conceptual model proposed by the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS); (2) examined the psychometric properties of the LFDRS contextual factors in financial decision-making by investigating both the reliability and convergent validity of the subscales and total scale, and (3) extended previous work on the scale by collecting normative data on financial decision-making. A convenience sample of 200 independent and community dwelling older adults underwent cognitive and financial management testing and were interviewed using the LFDRS. Confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency measures, and hierarchical regression were used in a sample of 200 community-dwelling older adults, all of whom were making or had recently made a significant financial decision.

Results confirmed the scale's reliability and supported the conceptual model. Convergent validity analyses indicate that as hypothesized, cognition is a significant predictor of risk scores. Financial management scores, however, were not predictive of decision-making risk scores. The psychometric properties of the LFDRS support the scale's use as proposed in Lichtenberg et al., 2015. The LFDRS instructions and scale are provided for clinicians to use in financial capacity assessments.

Item Response Theory Analysis of the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Screening Scale
Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, (June 2017) 29, 213-228
These analyses examine the psychometric properties of the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Screening Scale (LDFSS) to evaluate the decisional abilities and vulnerability to exploitation of older adults.  Adults ages 60 and over were interviewed by social, legal, financial or health services professionals who underwent in-person training on administering and scoring the scale. Professionals rated the decision-making abilities of the older adult. Ten screening items assessing inability to make financial decisions were included in the measure. The analytic sample included 213 individuals with an average age of 76.9 (s.d.=10.1).  The majority (57%) were female.  Data were analyzed using item response theory (IRT) methodology; several forms of the measure were evaluated. The results supported the uni-dimensionality of the item set. The LDFSS performed well in terms of IRT reliability and information provided, and can be recommended as a short screen for financial decision-making capability and vulnerability to exploitation.

New Approaches in Determining Financial Capacity and Risk in Exploitation
Journal of Mental Health Care, (June 2017) 1, 1-3
This commentary examines the conceptual model we introduced in 2015 (Lichtenberg, Stoltman, Ficker, Iris, & Mast) and empirical evidence for the reliability and validity of the measure's rating scale. The financial decision-making scale is unique, in that it focuses on an actual significant financial decision or transaction and incorporates contextual variables specific to financial decision-making. It therefore goes beyond financial management skills, cognition, or rational decision-making by incorporating financial situational awareness (e.g., self-efficacy, financial strain), psychological vulnerability regarding finances, and susceptibility to undue influence and/or exploitation. We argue that decisional incapacity is likely to greatly increase the older adult's vulnerability to financial exploitation. In addition, the intersection of decisional incapacity and financial capacity is heightened by the presence of cognitive decline or impairment. We examine these hypotheses in two separate data collections.

Reliability and Validity of the Lichtenberg Financial Desision Screening Scale
The Gerontological Society of America, Innovation in Aging, Advance Access May 26, 2017
Few empirically validated, efficient scales are available for financial, legal and criminal justice professionals to assess an older adult's decision-making capacity around specific financial transactions. The Financial Decision Screening Scale is offered to help fill that void. It can be used in a variety of settings to help assess decisional capacity and prevent financial exploitation (e.g., Adult Protective Services, Medical offices, legal services, financial services).  Using a sample of 213 participants, we investigated the internal consistency of the LFDSS and its criterion validity based on ratings by professionals using the scale. Results demonstrate that the LFDSS has excellent internal consistency and clinical utility properties. This paper provides support for use of the LFDSS as a reliable and valid instrument. The LFDSS and instructions for its use are included in the article, along with information about online tools and support.

New Assessments in Financial Decision Making and Financial Exploitation: Lichtenberg Financial Decision Screening Scale 
The National Adult Protective Services Association, in conjunction with the National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (NCPEA) released a Research to Practice (R2P) Brief in August 2016. This brief is a follow-up to the webinar on the subject.

Financial capacity and financial exploitation of older adults: Research findings, policy recommendations and clinical implications
Clinical Gerontologist, 40(1), August 3, 2016
We review research on financial exploitation and financial capacity research pointing to the importance of numeracy in financial exploitation, and how decision-making abilities relate to financial exploitation. Our conceptual model is presented and discussed.

The intersection of financial exploitation and financial capacity
American Psychologist, 71, 312-320
Research in the past decade has documented the financial exploitation of older adults as a major problem. Psychology has only recently increased its efforts to reduce this exploitation. During this same time, psychology has been a leader in setting best practices for the assessment of diminished capacity in older adults, culminating in the 2008 ABA/APA joint publication of a handbook for psychologists. Assessment of financial decision-making capacity is often the cornerstone assessment needed in cases of financial exploitation. This paper examines the intersection of financial exploitation and decision-making capacity; and introduces a new conceptual model and new tools for investigating and preventing financial exploitation.

The Lichtenberg Financial Decision Screening Scale (LFDSS): A new tool for assessing financial decision making and preventing financial exploitation
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, March 2016
One challenge in preventing the financial exploitation of older adults is that neither criminal justice nor noncriminal justice professionals are equipped to detect capacity deficits. Effective instruments for measuring this capacity are essential, because decision-making capacity is a cornerstone assessment in cases of financial exploitation. We introduce a new screening scale for older adults to assess financial decision-making. To explore the scale's implementation and assess validity, we conducted a pilot study of 29 older adults seen by Adult Protective Services workers and 79 older adults seen by other professionals. Case examples are included.

New Approaches to Preventing Financial Exploitation: A Focus on the Banks
The Gerontological Society of America, Public Policies & Aging Report, 2016, Vol. 26, No. 1
We describe three ways banks can reduce the financial exploitation of older adults: (1) proactive planning between financial service providers and their customers, (2) continuous efforts to educate financial services frontline providers about cognitive impairment, dementia and its detection, as well as increasing their ability to identify financial transactions that put the older adult customer at high risk for financial exploitation, and (3) a new person-centered method to assess financial decision-making in older adults suspected of having cognitive impairment, dementia, or of being at high risk for financial exploitation.

Financial Exploitation, Financial Capacity, and Alzheimer's Disease
American Psychological Association, American Psychologist, 2016, Vol. 71, No. 4

Financial Decision-Making Abilities and Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, August 18, 2016
This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing a person's capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one-third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with scores on cognitive screening tests and financial ability tests, demonstrating good criterion validity. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool.

Psychological and Functional VulnerabilityPredicts Fraud Cases in Older Adults: Results of a Longitudinal Study
Clinical Gerontologist, October, 2015
Using cross-sectional data, psychological vulnerability was identified as a correlate of older adult's being defrauded. We extend that research by examining fraud prevalence using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and identifying the best predictors of fraud across a 4-year timeframe. In 2008, reported fraud prevalence was 5.0% in a 5-year look-back period, which increased to 6.1% in 2012. The rate of new-incident fraud across only a 4-year look-back was 4.3%.  Being younger-old, having a higher level of education, and having more depression significantly predicted the new cases of fraud reported in 2012. Psychological vulnerability was a potent longitudinal predictor of fraud, with the most vulnerable individuals more than twice as likely to be defrauded. Results indicate that fraud victimization among older adults is rising, and that vulnerability variables, along with some demographic variables, predict new cases of fraud.

A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale
Clinical Gerontologist, 38:4967, 2015
This study introduced the rating scale, its development and initial findings of inter-rater reliability. We used a concept mapping method with two expert panels to develop both the full conceptual model and the more than 60 items for the rating scale. The model poses that contextual factors such as financial awareness, psychological vulnerability around finances and susceptibility to undue influence or exploitation can impact core decision-making abilities that undergird most legal standards for making a contract, will, gift, etc.. These include the ability to communicate choice, rationale, understanding and appreciation of the financial decision in question. Inter-rater reliability was good across several raters who made their rating after watching the interview.

Financial Decision Making and Financial Exploitation: Assessment Issues in Older Adults
Syracuse University Aging Studies Institute Policy Brief, Nov. 2014

How to Protect and Help Clients with Diminished Capacity
MetLife Online Journal, April 2104

Is Psychological Vulnerability Related to the Experience of Fraud in Older Adults?
Clinical Gerontologist, 36:132146, 2013

Misdiagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease: Case Studies in Capacity Assessment
Clinical Gerontologist, 35:4256, 2012

News Citations on Financial Gerontology, Scams & Fraud

Detroit Jewish News, 7/10/17
Love, laugh and help each other
By Shari Cohen
Abuse of elders emotional, financial or physical affects an estimated 5 percent of people over age 60, according to a 2010 study cited by Peter Lichtenberg, Ph.D, a national expert on elder abuse, a professor of psychology and director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University. "Many live alone and aren't able or don't want to report problems. Those over 85 are often fearful and don't think of the options," he says.

Detroit Free Press, 5/13/17
How do you protect seniors from being swindled?
By Susan Tompor
Financial advisers who suspect that a senior is being pressured by a son or daughter to sell stock and hand over the cash would be required to alert state authorities, under a bill introduced in Lansing. Advisers also would have more legal leverage to drag their feet when it comes to paying out money from the account of an elder client, if they suspect the senior could be a victim of financial exploitation. Peter A. Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University, said mandatory reporting laws raise awareness about the need for those in the financial services industry to spot potential scams and patterns of financial abuse that target vulnerable older adults. "Training is so necessary," Lichtenberg said. Even so, he said some research indicates that mandatory reporting of financial abuse doesn't always lead to an increase in reporting or detection of financial abuse. After all, those in adult protective services already have heavy caseloads and may not be able to address an issue quickly, he said.

Observer & Eccentric Newspapers, 4/17/17
How to protect grandma from getting conned
By Jay Grossman
One of out every 20 older adults is a victim of fraud, according to the Department of Justice. Con artists are getting away with thousands of dollars in these financial scams and, in most cases, the money is almost impossible to recover. Peter Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University, has come up with a tool to protect the elderly against scams, in the form of a comprehensive assessment test that helps determine if a person is at-risk to make poor financial decisions. "We developed this test to look at decisions that older individuals are making and how informed they are in making them," Lichtenberg said. "Without informed decision-making, people get themselves in a lot of trouble." Lichtenberg said crimes against older adults are under reported, mainly because the victims are too embarrassed to say anything. And women are typically targeted more than men. "Mom doesn't feel like a strong parent anymore and adult children don't feel like they're honoring their parent if they can't get through and protect them," he said. "So it's a very difficult dance. I think people have to find a way to be direct, but not confrontational."

IA Watch Reporter, 7/7/16
Tool for financial professionals to assess senior cognitive function now available
By Carl Ayers
The increased focus by lawmakers, regulators and law enforcement on the issue of seniors' financial exploitation cries for some way that financial professionals may be able to better detect mental decline in their aged clients. Last year, we shared best practices for dealing with elderly clients and mentioned the work of Peter Lichtenberg, director of Wayne State University's Institute of Gerontology (IA Watch, July 9, 2015). He was testing a 10-item, multiple-choice questionnaire that financial professionals and others could use to gauge a senior's financial acumen and cognitive status.

The Wall Street Journal,, 6/29/16
Massachusetts court to hear next chapter in Redstone saga
By Joe Flint
When the legal battle surrounding Sumner Redstone had its last substantive turn in court, the media mogul's longtime companion was arguing he was mentally incompetent when he evicted her and removed her as his health-care proxy. A California judge dismissed that suit. Now, as a Massachusetts court prepares for a hearing Thursday in the latest chapter of the saga, the stakes are much higher and the legal terrain far more complex. At issue now is whether Redstone knew what he was doing in recent weeks when he reordered the power structure atop his media empire, which includes controlling stakes in Viacom Inc. and CBS Corp. In addition to his mental competency, the case also will get into the murky legal question of whether Redstone came under "undue influence" from his daughter, Shari Redstone, in making the changes, and how recent events square with the fine points of estate plans that the 93-year-old crafted in 2002, when he set up a trust to oversee his holdings upon his death or incapacitation. The suit has been brought by Viacom Chairman and Chief Executive Philippe Dauman and board member George Abrams, who were ousted from the board of Redstone's holding company, National Amusements Inc., as well as the trust. They are seeking reinstatement. They say that Redstone is suffering from a worsening brain disorder, can't walk or speak and would never have wanted them removed if he were in command of his faculties. Viacom will have to show that because of Redstone's vulnerability, he is "parroting someone else's ideas that have been planted over and over through repetition and isolation," said Peter Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University.

Detroit Free Press, 5/22/16
Baby boomers dealing with debt can find financial help
By Susan Tompor
May is officially Older Americans Month and is a good time to discuss some challenges many seniors face when it comes to paying their bills. One in three older adults are viewed as economically insecure, according to the National Council on Aging. About 10 percent of seniors were living in poverty as of 2014, compared with 8.9 percent in 2010. More than 60 percent of households headed by someone older than 60 had some form of debt in 2013. The median debt totaled $40,900 -- double the amount as of 2001. The Elder Economic Index data from the Wayne State University Institute of Gerontology indicates that about nearly 60 percent of seniors living within the Detroit Area Agency on Aging Region 1a do not have sufficient income to take care of their basic needs, compared to 37 percent of the older adults residing in Michigan. The data is from the Institute of Gerontology's Seniors Count project in 2011. The area includes Detroit, Hamtramck, Highland Park, Grosse Pointe, Grosse Pointe Park, Grosse Pointe Shores, Grosse Pointe Woods, Grosse Pointe Farms and Harper Woods.

WWDB-AM (Philadelphia, Penn.), 2/9/16
Why some older adults are susceptible to being scammed
Peter Lichtenberg, director of both the Institute of Gerontology and the Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute at Wayne State University, was a guest on "Boomer Generation Radio" hosted by Richard Address. Lichtenberg is a national expert in financial capacity assessment and financial exploitation of older adults. His particular areas of research include mental health in long term care, geriatric depression, geriatric psychology and medical rehabilitation and the early detection and management of Alzheimer's Disease. "As the population ages, there are certain reasons to be a little more careful about knowing how decisions are made and whether they are influenced by either psychological vulnerability or neuro-cognitive variables [like] loss of memory and problem-solving skills," Lichtenberg said. "We have found that people who were both financially and psychologically vulnerable were much more likely to be scammed."

Advisor Innovation and Client Dementia, 2/1/16
Determining Dementia in a Client
By Steven Starnes
Advisors and other financial professionals can improve how we serve and protect seniors, especially those facing age-related dementia. Medical research tells us that one of the first signs of dementia is difficulty managing personal finances. This means our clients can make really expensive mistakes with their money before their family or friends recognize there is a problem. How can we protect our senior clients, as well as their caregivers and families? Sandra Adams at the Center for Financial Planning and Peter Lichtenberg, professor at Wayne State University, discuss the signs of diminished capacity in their Journal of Financial Planning article, "How to Protect and Help Clients with Diminished Capacity." Perhaps your
client seems more disorganized than usual, does not remember recent conversations or is making decisions that do not fit with her plan or values.

Community Connection Greater Midtown 11/15
How to Prevent Financial Exploitation
Dr. Peter Lichtenberg describes a case study to illustrate how older adults can protect themselves from being financially exploited. First of two parts.

News-Medical, 7/16/15
Wayne State's Institute of Gerontology director awarded for elder abuse research
Peter Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University, won the Judge Edward Sosnick Courage to Lead Award for his extensive work to create ways of identifying older adults at risk of financial exploitation. The award is presented annually by the Oakland County SAVE (Serving Adults who are Vulnerable and/or Elderly) Task Force. Lichtenberg created a set of scales and assessments of a person's ability to make sound, rational financial decisions and/or risk of being subject to undue influence. Initial studies confirm that the Lichtenberg Financial Decision-Making Screening and Rating Scales reliably profile an older adult's vulnerability to exploitation and ability to make significant financial decisions.

WJR-AM, 7/15
Senior exploitation
Mitch Albom Show
During a segment on the "Mitch Albom Show," host Mitch Albom explored the growing problem regarding the exploitation of seniors by caregivers, family and others who take advantage of older adults financially. Albom referenced studies done at Wayne State University surrounding the issue of senior exploitation. (We are unable to download the audio file.)

Detroit Free Press, 7/14/2015
What's wrong with stealing from grandma? Plenty
By Robin Erb
A series of studies at Wayne State University is bringing into focus the vulnerability of elderly people not only to con artists and mail scams but also to loved ones and trusted caregivers. And the lead researcher, as well as other experts agree: Part of the problem is the ability of the perpetrators to rationalize their deeds. "After a period of time, family members ... often feel entitled to take some of the money as sort of compensation for what they're doing, but also just of a sense (that) it's their money, too," said Peter Lichtenberg, director of Wayne State's Institute of Gerontology and lead author on the recent studies. Lichtenberg has designed two screening tools one a 77-question version, the other an abbreviated, 10-question survey to gauge seniors' abilities to make financial decisions. Both also test for the presence of risk factors trusted relatives or friends who appear predatory, for example. In one study, experts found that eight of the 69 elderly Detroit …participants had "decision-making incapacity," meaning that they no longer fully understand the risks and benefits of financial choices. Among those eight, five reported they had been financially exploited in the past year. None of the incidents had been reported to authorities, Lichtenberg said.

Access Magazine (Area Agency on Aging 1-B), Summer 2015
Screening Tool Helps Protect Vulnerable Seniors
Peter Lichtenberg was interviewed for this cover story on tools to help identify and protect older adults who are vulnerable to financial exploitation. Dr. Lichtenberg explained his current research project in which he created and is testing screening scales to determine an older adult's ability to make financial decisions. This tool has garnered much attention from professionals in financial planning, banking, law and medicine who routinely work with older adults and must assess their capacity., 3/13/15
How exactly does an elder abuse investigation work?
By Jay Deshpande
On Thursday, the Alabama Securities Commission announced that it had concluded its inquiry into whether Harper Lee's decision to publish "Go Set a Watchman" was in fact her ownor a case of elder abuse. But the Alabama Department of Human Resources is still looking into the matter after receiving a complaint last month that Lee was being exploited. Some suggest that Lee was in no way capable of making such a major decision, while others claim she has "full possession of her mental faculties." Peter Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University, explains that the term "elder abuse" can cover mistreatment ranging from physical or emotional abuse, to financial exploitation, to various forms of neglect. In terms of whether the elderly person has been unduly influenced, he said: "We look at ... What active steps did [the alleged influencer] take to procure monetary things? Did they flatter, cajole, berate, all of these? Did they isolate?" After checking the person's mental wellbeing for susceptibility to persuasion, the investigator must look for patterns by which the subject could be exploited. Lichtenberg looks for a "confidential relationship," often involving finances. If a person close to Lee has earned her confidence and then encouraged her to isolate herself, no longer talking to anyone else about her personal affairs, then this may be a sign of exploitation.

Oakland Press, Macomb Daily, 10/25/14
Depressed seniors more vulnerable to exploitation
By Diana Dillaber Murray
Older adults with severe depression and low social-status fulfillment are more apt to be victims of fraud, according to a study done by Peter Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University. Lichtenberg studied the problem in 4,440 older adults and found fraud increased by 226 percent under those circumstances. "Psychological vulnerability can impact older adults' lives in serious ways," said Lichtenberg, who planned to present his findings to Congress. He will also moderate a panel assembled by Florida congressman Ted Deutch and Minnesota senator Amy Klobuchar to bring attention to the Seniors Fraud Prevention Bill they recently introduced in Congress.

Lichtenberg received a $468,000 grant from the National Institute of Justice (beginning in January) to further validate the screenings and refine methods for wide-scale distribution of these tools across multiple such professionals as financial planners, bank personnel, lawyers, law enforcement officers and adult protective services employees. "We aren't trying to usurp a person's independence," Lichtenberg said. "We want to balance autonomy with protection and determine how best to educate and support older adults most at risk of being exploited."

The Kansas City Star, 9/13/14
Exploitation of elderly woman by a 'friend' is another chapter in an increasingly common story
By Eric Adler
No one knows precisely how many of the 60 million U.S. adults age 60 or older are victims of scammers. The few studies that exist estimate that up to 5 percent of seniors 3 million people are financially exploited each year. Social isolation long has been known as a major risk factor for exploitation. Without trusted relatives or peers, impressionable and needy adults can more easily fall prey to self-serving people. "What we have is a group of people, especially as they get into their 80s, who often have to give up driving, become widowed," said Peter Lichtenberg, a geriatric neuropsychologist who is director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University. "Their worlds become smaller. Loneliness is a factor. They become targets." Lichtenberg is one of a number of researchers nationwide who is placing increasing attention on the role conditions such as mild dementia or depression play in exploitation. He studied some 4,400 people age 60 and older. In research published last year, Lichtenberg found that while about 4.5 percent had been victims of fraud, the rate of victimization was three times as great among those who reported being the most depressed and the least socially connected.

WDET-FM, 9/26/13
Taking advantage of elders
One out of every 20 seniors are now facing the challenge of dealing with financial exploitation. Victims lose anywhere from $79,000 to $186,000 or more. Peter Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University, will discuss his findings Sept. 30, at the Berman Center for the Performing Arts. During the event, experts will analyze the multiple ways older adults are exploited, and a documentary film titled "Last Will and Embezzlement," will be show featuring Hollywood star Mickey Rooney.

Detroit Free Press, USA Today, 9/23/13
Protecting seniors and their money is focus of daughter's documentary USA Today
By Cassandra Spratling
An article highlights a documentary film, Last Will and Embezzlement, which aims to raise awareness about financial exploitation of elderly people. One out of every 20 older adults in the U.S. will be a victim of financial exploitation, and the rates are rising, said Peter Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University. To help, he is developing an assessment to determine whether a senior citizen is at risk of being the victim of financial abuse. He said he hopes to be able to pilot the 61-question assessment by the end of the year.

Detroit Legal News, 9/18/13
Film highlights alarming rise of financial abuse of older adults
One out of every 20 older adults in the U.S. will be a victim of financial exploitation this year, and the rates are rising. Prevention is the best defense against this exploding problem. But first we must pinpoint who is most at risk. Peter Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology at Wayne State University, has created the Lichtenberg Financial Decision-Making Rating Scale to do just that. Initial studies confirm the scale as a reliable tool in determining older adults' vulnerability to fraud and ability to manage their money. "We aren't trying to usurp a person's independence," Lichtenberg said. "We want to balance autonomy with protection and determine how best to educate and support older adults most at risk of being exploited." Lichtenberg will discuss his findings as part of the "Safeguarding the Golden Generation" panel and movie preview Sept. 30, from 6:30-9:30 pm at the Berman Center for the Performing Arts, in West Bloomfield. The evening analyzes the multiple ways older adults are exploited and kicks off with the screening of a documentary titled "Last Will and Embezzlement." The film will also be shown on Sept. 25 at the Italian American Cultural Center in Clinton Township. Among the presenters are Jocelyn Benson, interim dean of Wayne State University's Law School.

The Sun Sentinel (Fort Lauderdale, Fla.), 5/26/13
New study, bill puts focus on senior fraud
By Diane C. Lade
New efforts are underway to combat what aging experts say has become one of the top threats facing elders: losing their savings to con artists and financial predators. Gerontologists at Wayne State University have created, for the first time, a potential victim profile that could alert professionals and families to which seniors are most psychologically vulnerable to fraud. And a bipartisan bill filed last week by U.S. Rep. Ted Deutch, a Democrat from Boca Raton, and two other representatives would create a federal advisory office dedicated to protecting elders from fraud and ensuring victims' complaints are handled efficiently and quickly. Deutch's bill mandates that the Federal Trade Commission, which would house the new office, "immediately" funnel elder fraud and exploitation reports to appropriate local law enforcement or regulatory agencies for investigation, something the FTC is not required to do now. The new office also would alert elders to new scams and educate them about investment fraud. Peter Lichtenberg, director of Wayne State University's Institute of Gerontology and the researcher behind the elder fraud victim profile, commented in the story.

Senior Planet 5/20/13
Scams: Are You Immune?
By Kathleen Doheny
Research into what makes older adults vulnerable to scams by IOG Director Peter Lichtenberg was the subject of an extensive interview.  Risk factors for seniors, tips on staying safe, and details of the 4,400 older adults (average age 66) studied were included.  Lichtenberg said that of the 5% who had been victimized, depression and not feeling socially fulfilled greatly increased the odds of falling prey to financial fraud.  People who don't feel loved and appreciated are easy targets for charming thieves who know how to establish bonds and trust quickly. The article included a "Fraud Awareness Quiz."

Macomb County Legal News, 5/6/13
Honoring work on behalf of 'vulnerable adults'
By Sheila Pursglove
Elder Law of Michigan has scheduled two events for the 5th Annual Joe D. Sutton Call to Justice Awards, honoring individuals and organizations that help adults in need and work towards health, safety, fairness and justice for vulnerable people. Peter Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology and the Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute at Wayne State University, will receive the Leadership Award. Lichtenberg is the founding director of the Wayne State University Lifespan Alliance. He also has written several books on aging and served as chair of the Michigan Dementia Coalition and president of the Adult Development and Aging Section of the American Psychological Association.

The Deseret News, 4/30/13
Some Seniors More Vulnerable to Fraud
Research by IOG Director Peter Lichtenberg points to areas of increased vulnerability among seniors as loneliness and isolation motivate them to connect with strangers who are potential predators.

Detroit Legal News, 4/29/13
Elder Law of Michigan to host two "Call to Justice" award events in May
By Sheila Pursglove
Peter Lichtenberg, director of the Institute of Gerontology and the Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute at Wayne State University, will receive the Leadership Award on Tuesday, May 7 at the Glen Oaks Country Club in Farmington Hills. Lichtenberg also is the founding director of the Wayne State University Lifespan Alliance, author of several books on aging and has held office in several professional organizations including Chair of Michigan Dementia Coalition and President of the Adult Development and Aging Section of the American Psychological Association.

CBS Detroit, Medical Xpress, News Medical, Examiner, 4/25/13
Wayne State finds 'psychologically vulnerable' more vulnerable to fraudsters
Older adults with the highest levels of depression and the lowest levels of social needs fulfillment experience higher levels of fraud, according to a new study from Wayne State University and the Illinois Institute of Technology. The schools advise clinical gerontologists in the field to be aware of older adults' needs for assessment of financial exploitation or its potential when working with highly vulnerable individuals. Financial exploitation of the elderly is on the rise according to the National Association of Area Agencies on Aging, and the numbers are expected to continue to grow as Baby Boomers age. This exploitation, which includes telemarketing scams, fake home repairs, fake check scams, identity theft and more, costs approximately $3 billion each year. The study, "Is Psychological Vulnerability Related to the Experience of Fraud in Older Adults?" published in the recent issue of Clinical Gerontologist, is the first study to include prospective predictors of reported financial fraud victimization of older adults, and is the first to review financial exploitation of any kind with the same population from a psychological-vulnerability perspective. "This study illustrates how we can enhance our understanding of this major issue by performing a clinical analysis instead of one that stops at epidemiological or broad population-based reviews," said Peter Lichtenberg, director of WSU's Institute of Gerontology and lead author of the paper. "Those in the clinical study showed characteristics of extreme depression symptoms and perceived low social-status fulfillment, thus showing they were more vulnerable to the experience of theft of scams.

Grosse Pointe Today, 12/19/11
Be Aware of Special Vulnerability of Elderly to Scammers and Thieves
By Anne Marie Gattari
Some 13 percent of older African-American residents of Metro Detroit report they have been the victim of a scam or a theft in the past year while the national average is just 3 percent, according to new research from Wayne State's Institute of Gerontology (IOG). Dr. Peter Lichtenberg, the IOG's director, just finished crunching the numbers and the results are dramatic but not surprising, he said. "Three-quarters of those interviewed said they underestimated how much they'd need in retirement," he said. "And the best victims of fraud are those that are stressed about their finances." Add that to the fact that the elderly tend to be less critical and more accepting, they are the perfect victim, Lichtenberg said. That's why, he said, "everyone needs to be on guard, but some more than others."

Detroit Free Press, 6/19/11
As weather warms, watch out for home repair scams
By Tammy Stables Battaglia
Wayne State University professor Peter Lichtenberg, who studies elder abuse, commented in a story on repair scams and thieves that usually prey on seniors who have little money and those who feel disrespected. His 2010 study found that 1 in 10 senior citizens in Detroit have been victimized by fraud.

Seniors Victimized by Fraud
(December 2010, 0:19:59 minute clip, mp3 format)
IOG Director Peter Lichtenberg discusses why seniors fall prey to con artists; downsizing problems for Michigan's older adults who are "rusting in place," financial gerontology and latest research from the Gerontological Society of America.